Top 10 Oldest Animal Species on Earth
10 Martialis Heureka – 120 million years old
Martialis heureka is a species of ant from the Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil, discovered in 2000. It was described as a new species and placed in a new subfamily, Martialinae, as the sole member. Martialis Huereka is pale, has a length of 3 millimetres and has no pupils. They used to dwell in the dirt. The finding of Martialis Huereka encourages the biologist to perform in-depth research on other species of ants.
9 Frilled Shark – 150 million years old
Frilled shark species were found in 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. Frilled sharks are considered a ‘living fossil’ that emerged 150 million years ago on Earth. The 5-foot-long frilled shark has over 25 rows of 300 trident shaped teeth. The odd looking mouth of the frilled shark looks much bigger than that of most shark species. In the depth of the water, the hydrocarbon rich liver and the oily body itself allow the frilled shark to survive.
8 Horseshoe Shrimp – 200 million years old
About the same time as dinosaur evolution, about 200 million years ago, Horseshoe Shrimps evolved on Earth. The horseshoe shrimp is thin. The primary benefit of Horseshoe Shrimps is the power to thrive in any event of temperature and geological variations. Once the larvae are dried up by the ponds of horseshoe shrimps, they remain inactive for several years.
7 Sturgeon – 200 million years old
The common name for the 27 fish species belonging to the Acipenseridae genus is Sturgeon. The earliest fossils of sturgeons date to the Late Cretaceous, and are descended from other earlier acipenseriform fish that date back some 245 to 208 million years ago to the Triassic period. Sturgeons can grow up to 5.5 feet in length and weigh between 600 kg and 200 kg. Sturgeons, sadly, are still on the list of critically endangered species. A significant number of eggs at a time are laid by sturgeons.
6 Coelacanth – 360 million years old
The coelacanths comprise a now-rare order of fish that comprises two existing members of the genus Latimeria: the coelacanth of the West Indian Ocean, mostly occurring off the east coast of Africa near the Comoros Islands, and the coelacanth of Indonesia. Coelacanaths live off the soil at a depth of 2300 feet. They’ve had a 60 year life cycle. As a trotting horse, Coelacanath runs. The wings, such as lobe fins, help the fish make a peculiar action like this. The electro-sensory organ enables Coelacanath to track prey in the ocean quickly.
5 Horseshoe Crab – 445 million years old
Sea and brackish water arthropods of the Limulidae family, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura are horseshoe crabs. A misnomer is their common name, since they are not actual crabs, nor crustaceans, as crabs are but a separate arthropod order. The rough exoskelton, long tail and spines of the horseshoe crabs. They have a total of nine pupils, located in the body. Out of nine, horseshoe crabs primarily use two large eyes and others are light sensors to monitor movements. They can detect ultra violet rays as well.
4 Nautilus – 500 million years old
The nautilus is a pelagic marine mollusc belonging to the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the only living family belonging to the Nautilaceae superfamily and to its smaller yet almost equal suborder, Nautilina. It consists of six living species in two genera, of which the Nautilus genus is the type. The only surviving survivor of the large population of shellfish is estimated to be Nautilus. Nautilus is found in the coastal waters of the Andaman, the Fijian and the Great Barrier Reef, living below an ocean depth of 2200 ft. The living fossil was also identified by Nautilus. There are several chambered shells in the Nautilus body. They make these shells look like octopuses. The mouth of the Nautilus is surrounded by a hundred tentacles and the shells have a muscular hood.
3 Jellyfish – 550 Million years old
The informal common names assigned to the medusa-phase of some gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a large part of the phylum Cnidaria, are jellyfish and sea jellies. Jellyfish are the world’s oldest species with numerous organs. It formed 550 million years ago in the world’s oceans. They do not have a cortex or a nervous system. Jellyfish can be found in various shapes and colours. Ninety percent of their bodies contain water. They are notorious for drinking other jellies, too. The genus of box jellyfish is the most venomous species on Earth.
2 Sponge – 580 million years old
As a sister of the Diploblasts, Sponges, members of the phylum Porifera, are a basal Metazoa clade. They are multicellular species, composed of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells, with bodies full of pores and channels that cause water to flow through them. They first emerged in the world’s seas 580 million years ago. The planet has 5000 distinct species of sponges. They live in various colonies in the waters of the seas. Sponges have no internal organs, no limbs, and no head. They have a special ability to revive the missing part of the body and from the old one can emerge a new sponge.
1 Cyanobacteria – 2.8 billion years old
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of prokaryotes that are found in the Archaeplastida, the autotrophic eukaryotes that comprise red and green algae and ground plants, composed of both free-living photosynthetic bacteria and endosymbiotic plastids. They emerged 2.8 billion years ago and became the first microbe ever to produce oxygen by photosynthesis. They have thereby been part of turning the atmosphere of the Earth into an oxidising one. Green-clue bacteria are also known as cyanobacteria.